Montessori Curricular Goals For Children 3 to 6 Years Old
The educational program for the Early Childhood level in Children’s House is distinguished by a core curriculum where each child acquires and applies a breadth of skills during a three-year learning cycle.
Well-planned lessons are presented in a carefully prepared educational environment filled with specifically- designed, age-appropriate materials. The Montessori trained teacher creates opportunities for individual children in a mixed-age community. The children learn and achieve at a rate which meets their particular needs and allows their talents to emerge.
The primary program encourages the young child to explore, to cooperate, and to attain academic and social independence. The acquired skills are intended to prepare each child not only for success at the next academic level, but also for success in life.
Practical Life exercises instill skills in caring for oneself, for others, and for the environment. Activities include many of the tasks children see as part of the daily routine in their home as well as lessons in the social graces and courtesy. Through these tasks children develop muscular coordination, skills of independence and focus their attention in activity that promotes concentration and attention to details.
- Elementary Movements
These category of lessons in practical activities are designed to help the children build control and coordination of fine and gross motor coordination. They focus on the most basic and fundamental practical skills such as opening and closing a door, carrying objects, squeezing a sponge, folding, and cutting with a scissors.
By isolating the component movements of more complex practical tasks we prepare the children to be success in skills of independence while coordinating their movements.
- Care of Self
These activities address the children’s need for purposeful activity that frees them from obstacles and helps them to do things for themselves. The self care exercises include skills in hygiene, dressing, and use of the toilet.
- Care of the Environment
The care of the environment exercises teach skills for care of both the indoor and outdoor environment. They include washing, cleaning, scrubbing, polishing, gardening and many other practical activities seen at home. In the Montessori classroom children don’t just play house, they “do house”, with real tools geared to their proportions. These activities also emphasize sequencing, left to right alignment, control and dexterity, and follow a complete cycle which requires the child to follow through and complete the work. The child gains many indirect benefits from these activities which prepare them for later academic work.
- Social Relations
In the classroom small skits are used to demonstrate the skills of social relations. These begin with simple demonstrations like how and when to interrupt, and progress to complex social skills like table manners. By instilling grace and courtesy through these lessons the children develop forms for successful interaction with peers and adults. The process creates a community built on mutual respect, tolerance and empathy for one another.
Sensorial exercises promote the development of the senses and the building of skills in discrimination. Children develop cognitive skills by learning to order and classify their impressions through activities in touch, sight, taste, smell, listening and exploring the physical properties of their environment.
Identifies the primary, secondary and tertiary colors.
Distinguishes and grades shades of color.
Able to identify with accurate terms all the forms in the Geometric Cabinet.
Names accurately all the Geometric Solids.
Constructs shapes using Constructive Triangles.
Discriminates and uses accurate terms for dimension.
Able to build Trinomial Cube without pattern matching.
Visually matches and grades accurately. Matches and grades sounds accurately.
Discriminates by matching and grading textures accurately.
Discriminates by matching and grading smells accurately.
Discriminates by matching and grading sounds accurately.
Montessori math activities help children learn and understand abstract mathematical concepts through manipulating concrete materials. Children get a solid foundation in basic mathematics principles, preparing them for later abstract reasoning, and helping them to develop problem solving capabilities.
- Numbers One through Ten
Knows the number names for zero through ten, both in sequence and at random.
Understands the concept of zero.
Identifies which numbers are odd and even.
Introduction to the Decimal System
Associates the quantities and the number symbols for the Golden Bead material.
Able to associate the quantities and symbols in order from 1-9000 and understands the concept of place value.
Composes and reads accurately numbers from one to nine hundred ninety nine.
- Operations of Number
Understands and describes the process of addition and subtraction as well as multiplication and division.
Able to add, subtract, multiply and divide with the Golden Beads without exceeding nine in any category (static).
Able to convert ten of one category to one of the next highest category.
Performs necessary changes for dynamic addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using the Golden Bead material.
Able to add, subtract, multiply and divide with the Stamp Game without exceeding nine in any category (static).
Performs necessary changes for dynamic addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using the Stamp Game material.
- Sequence of Number
Can identify colored bead bars 1-9 quickly as a result of frequent use.
Is able to count to 100, and knows the number names for teens and tens.
Has skip counted square and cube chains.
- Combinations of Number
Has begun the memorization of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division facts.
Can identify by name the pieces of the fraction insets and can compose fractions using the insets.
Able to tell time on the hour and on the half hour.
Sensorial experience with linear measure such as inches, feet and yards.
Sensorial experience with volume measures such as quarts, pints, cups, half cups, third of a cup, quarter of a cup, tablespoons, and teaspoons.
Sensorial experience with measures of weight including balance beam and units such as pounds and ounces.
The Montessori activities build skills in sound discrimination, prepare the hand for writing, encourage the development of written expression and lay a foundation of phonetic skills that prepare the child for reading.
- Preparation for Reading and Writing
Able to identify component sounds in words, initial sound and ending sound.
Has done extensive work with metal insets and can draw and fill shapes with skill.
Memorized many sandpaper letters, both individual and phonogram sounds.
Can build both phonetic and non phonetic words using the Moveable Alphabet.
Can write individual letters in print or cursive on a chalkboard.
- Reading Skills
Can sort letters by shape and place them in correct position on lines.
Has developed pencil grip, lightness of touch and isolated wrist movements sufficiently to form letters on paper.
Reads phonetic 3 and 4 letter words.
Knows some phonograms and their variations and recognizes them in words.
Has memorized basic sight words.
Understands the function of basic parts of speech such as the article, adjective, noun and verb.
Reads and matches labels in environment and to classified cards.
Can read a short booklet of phonetic and sight words.
Understands the function of the period and question mark in reading and writing.
Lessons in botany expose the child to a wide scope of activities intended to promote interest and encourage reverence for living things.
Participated in activities in the garden including planting, caring for young plants, harvesting and composting.
Introduced to the basic parts of the plants; roots, stem, branches and leaves.
Exposed to the cycle of growth in plants. Introduced to seeds and germination. Understands the function of and basic types of roots. Understands the function of the stem.
Understands the function of the leaf and its knows the basic parts.
Has had a sensorial introduction to leaf shapes and classifications with Botany Cabinet.
Has had a sensorial introduction to parts of a flower. Understands the types and function of the fruit.
Classification and Zoology
Lessons in classification and zoology expose the child to a wide scope of activities intended to promote interest and encourage reverence for living things.
Able to classify living and non living things.
Identifies and gives examples of the characteristics of living things:
All living things need food All living things move in some manner All living things growth and change All living things reproduce All living things need oxygen
Able to classify living things into the three basic kingdoms of plant, animal, or mineral.
Has experience caring for animals.
Able to identify and give examples of the basic characteristics of animals:
All animals have a characteristic size. All animals have a characteristic covering. All animals have characteristic movements. All animals eat specialized food. All animals have a characteristic habitat.
Understands the basic differences between vertebrates and invertebrates.
Classifies and identifies vertebrates in the five basic groups: fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.
Lessons in geography expose the child to a wide scope of activities intended to promote interest and encourage respect and understanding of different people and cultures.
Knows the names of the continents and major oceans.
Identifies basic land forms (island, lake, peninsula, gulf ) introduced to isthmus, strait, and their variations (cape, bay, archipelago, system of lakes)
and introduced to real names for some of them on maps.
Familiar with maps of each continent and knows many names of nations.
Exposed through picture material to different continents and countries around the world and their general characteristics such as the people, animals, plants, geological features, scenery, and places of interest .
Knows the name of own country, state and city. Knows names of some states.
Introduced to weather conditions (clear, partly cloudy, rain, snow) and can recognize their symbols.
Introduced to flags of the world.
Lessons in history expose the child to a wide scope of activities intended to promote interest and integrate a sense of time in their understanding other subjects.
Understands and names the different seasons of the year.
Is able to name and describe the weather conditions, condition of and activities of plants and animals during the four seasons.
Knows the names of the days of the week and introduced to months of the year.
Exposed to keeping track of time using a calendar.
Exposed to the sequence of a time line, such as own life represented in pictures or the growth cycle of a plant or animal.
Exposed to the history of time measurement, the concept of a day, hours in the day.
Exposed through picture material to cultural history and the fundamental needs of humans around the world
Basic: Food, Clothing, Shelter
Spiritual: Art, Music, Communication, Love, Vanity
Material: Protection, Transportation